Human Iris Pattern Recogniton for Biometric System

The iris of each eye is unique. No two irises are alike in their mathematical detail–even between identical twins and triplets or between one’s own left and right eyes. Unlike the retina, however, it is clearly visible from a distance, allowing easy image acquisition without intrusion. The iris remains stable throughout one’s lifetime, barring rare disease or trauma. The random patterns of the iris are the equivalent of a complex “human barcode,” created by a tangled meshwork of connective tissue and other visible features. The iris recognition process begins with video-based image acquisition that locates the eye and iris.

The boundaries of the pupil and iris are defined, eyelid occlusion and specular reflection are discounted, and quality of image is determined for processing. The iris pattern is processed and encoded into a record (or “template”), which is stored and used for recognition when a live iris is presented for comparison. Half of the information in the record digitally describes the features of the iris, the other half of the record controls the comparison, eliminating specular reflection, eyelid droop, eyelashes, etc.

A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. However, published results have usually been produced under favourable conditions, and there have been no independent trials of the technology.

The iris recognition system consists of an automatic segmentation system that is based on the Hough transform, and is able to localise the circular iris and pupil region, occluding eyelids and eyelashes, and reflections. The extracted iris region was then normalised into a rectangular block with constant dimensions to account for imaging inconsistencies. Finally, the phase data from 1D Log-Gabor filters was extracted and quantised to four levels to encode the unique pattern of the iris into a bit-wise biometric template. The Hamming distance was employed for classification of iris templates, and two templates were found to match if a test of statistical independence was failed. The system performed with perfect recognition on a set of 75 eye images; however, tests on another set of 624 images resulted in false accept and false reject rates of 0.005% and 0.238% respectively. Therefore, iris recognition is shown to be a reliable and accurate biometric technology.

A simple and effective source code for Iris Recognition is available with us. This code is based on Libor Masek’s excellent implementation and you can request us for this code. Just leave an email in comment below and we will get back to you.

Our implementation can speed up the recognition process reducing program execution time of about 94% (more than 16 times faster). Further optimizations are available on request. All tests were performed with CASIA Iris Image Database available at http://www.cbsr.ia.ac.cn/IrisDatabase.htm.

Mozilla Developer Network 10th Anniversary

Mozilla Developer Network is an awesome platform for all youngsters out there, it provides a learning platform for Web Technologies like HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It is open to everyone and anyone can login to start contributing to various open source projects of Mozilla as well as copy and reuse the content under its Creative Commons license.

 
 

Isn’t that amazing?

 

Not only this, within this ten years, MDN now have 4 million users per month and more than 1000 volunteer editors per month. mdn

You can also be part of it’s open source community and gain professional web development insights as well as become a part of it’s events by being an active contributor.

 
 

Millions of Web developers from learners to hobbyists to full‐time professionals used this open source platform and contributed inspiring ideas for empowering the growth of open web.

 

So what are you waiting for?

 

Join MDN today and start contributing, let’s empower it’s open web vision and celebrate it’s ten year with innovative ideas.

 

You can visit MDN here : https://developer.mozilla.org/

 

If you want to know more, feel free to ping me.

Firefox Workshop in my college

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I organized Firefox workshop in my college  where we had session about Firefox openness and Firefox OS. I made a video for this workshop where in all students and professors came to know about Firefox products and its story so far. At the end of this interactive session we had question answer session where students asked their query about Mozilla and I addressed their query.

At the end I requested everyone to join Firefox Student Ambassdor program and contribute to its open source platform. Everyone was excited to be a part of Firefox Community.

Journey as a Firefox Student Ambassador

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I remember few weeks back when my semester was almost bidding it’s end and my classmates were dealing with exam tension, in midst of such a serious atmosphere I applied for Firefox Student Ambassador and within no time I received a congratulatory mail from Mozilla Firefox team with a warm welcome for becoming next Firefox Student Ambassador.

I couldn’t believe my eye for the first time but well I actually became Firefox Student Ambassador, with selection came my first set of tasks, my first community involvement with Mozilla Firefox team.

I came to know hidden facts behind Mozilla Journey and got in touch with their representatives. It was not the end now I can make cool apps for Mozilla Firefox open source platform, Acquire training and organise Firefox events in my region. Well excitement doesn’t end here, my next aim was to help people around me to know more about Mozilla Firefox.

I joined Firefox Friend’s Club and started promoting its activities. I even participated in SayHello challenge and discovered a new way to stay in touch with my buddies. After my serious attempts I received my first badge from Firefox for being it’s active student ambassador.Officially I completed my beginner journey by attaining this badge, now it was time for my first office hour with Mozilla team. I remember it was during my exam, as soon as my exam was over I rushed to attend my first office hour.Came to know so many things from this interactive session. After this interactive office hour, I decided to write this blog giving a brief experience of three week journey at Mozilla Firefox. There is a lot to achieve after this and I won’t stop. I will spread openness of firefox among my buddies and fellow mates. If you wanna know more about Mozilla Firefox community, feel free to ping me.

Thank you for reading this short description of my Firefox Student Ambassador Journey, Stay tuned, Lot more will be coming soon in future.

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25 Killer Actions to Boost Your Self-Confidence

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                                                 Once we believe in ourselves, we can risk curiosity, wonder, spontaneous delight, or any experience that reveals the human spirit.

One of the things that us back from pursuing our dreams is fear of failure and the lack of self-confidence.

It’s something we all face, to some degree, I think. The key question: how do you overcome that fear?

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While it may not seem so, if you are low in self-confidence, I strongly believe that you can do things to increase your self-confidence. It is not genetic, and you do not have to be reliant on others to increase your self-confidence. And if you believe that you are not very competent, not very smart, not very attractive, etc. … that can be changed.

You can become someone worthy of respect, and someone who can pursue what he wants despite of naysaying of others.

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You can do this by taking control of your life, and taking control of your self-confidence. By taking concrete actions that improve your competence, your self-image, you can increase that self-confidence, without the help of anyone else.

Below, I outline 25 things that will help you do that. None of them is revolutionary, none of them will do it all by themselves. The list certainly isn’t comprehensive. These are just some of my favorite things, stuff that’s worked for me.

And you don’t need to do all of them, as if this were a recipe … pick and choose those that appeal to you, maybe just a couple at first, and give them a try. If they work, try others. If they don’t, try others.

Here they are, in no particular order: 🙂

1. Groom yourself. This seems like such an obvious one, but it’s amazing how much of a difference a shower and personal grooming can make in your feelings of self-confidence and for your self-image. There have been days when I turned my mood around completely with this one little thing.

2. Dress nicely. A corollary of the first item above … if you dress nicely, you’ll feel good about yourself. You’ll feel successful and presentable and ready to tackle the world. Now, dressing nicely means something different for everyone … it doesn’t necessarily mean wearing a $500 outfit, but could mean casual clothes that are nice looking and presentable.

3. Photoshop your self-image. Our self-image means so much to us, more than we often realize. We have a mental picture of ourselves, and it determines how confident we are in ourselves. But this picture isn’t fixed and immutable. You can change it. Use your mental Photoshopping skills, and work on your self-image. If it’s not a very good one, change it. Figure out why you see yourself that way, and find a way to fix it.

4. Think positive. One of the things I learned when I started being optimistic, about two years ago,  how to replace negative thoughts (see next item) with positive ones. How I can actually change my thoughts, and by doing so make great things happened. With this tiny little skill, I was able to change my thinking within a year. It sounds so trite, so Monika’s type, but my goodness this works. Seriously. Try it if you haven’t.

5. Kill negative thoughts. Goes hand-in-hand with the above item, but it’s so important that I made it a separate item. You have to learn to be aware of your self-talk, the thoughts you have about yourself and what you’re doing. When I was trying to do something different, sometimes my mind would start to say, “This is too hard. I want to stop and go watch TV.” Well, I soon learned to recognize this negative self-talk, and soon I learned a trick that changed everything in my life: I would imagine that a negative thought was a bug, and I would vigilantly be on the lookout for these bugs. When I caught one, I would stomp on it (mentally of course) and squash it. Kill it dead. Then replace it with a positive one. (“C’mon, I can do this!!”)

Know yourself and you will win all battles. – Sun Tzu

6. Get to know yourself. When going into battle, the wisest general learns to know his enemy very, very well. You can’t defeat the enemy without knowing him. And when you’re trying to overcome a negative self-image and replace it with self-confidence, your enemy is yourself. Get to know yourself well. Start listening to your thoughts. Start writing a journal about yourself, and about the thoughts you have about yourself, and analyzing why you have such negative thoughts. And then think about the good things about yourself, the things you can do well, the things you like. Start thinking about your limitations, and whether they’re real limitations or just ones you’ve allowed to be placed there, artificially. Dig deep within yourself, and you’ll come out (eventually) with even greater self-confidence.

7. Act positive. More than just thinking positive, you have to put it into action. Action, actually, is the key to developing self-confidence. It’s one thing to learn to think positive, but when you start acting on it, you change yourself, one action at a time. You are what you do, and so if you change what you do, you change what you are. Act in a positive way, take action instead of telling yourself you can’t, be positive. Talk to people in a positive way, put energy into your actions. You’ll soon start to notice a difference.

8. Be kind and generous. Oh, so corny. If this is too corny for you, move on. But for the rest of you, know that being kind to others, and generous with yourself and your time and what you have, is a tremendous way to improve your self-image. You  start to feel good about yourself, and to think that you are a good person. It does wonders for your self-confidence, believe me.

One important key to success is self-confidence. A key to self-confidence is preparation. – Arthur Ashe

9. Get prepared. It’s hard to be confident in yourself if you don’t think you’ll do well at something. Beat that feeling by preparing yourself as much as possible. Think about taking an exam: if you haven’t studied, you won’t have much confidence in your abilities to do well on the exam. But if you studied your butt off, you’re prepared, and you’ll be much more confident. Now think of life as your exam, and prepare yourself.

10. Know your principles and live them. What are the principles upon which your life is built? If you don’t know, you will have trouble, because your life will feel directionless. For myself, I try to live the golden rule (and fail often). This is my key principle, and I try to live my life in accordance with it. I have others, but they are mostly in some way related to this rule (the major exception being to “Live my Passion”). Think about your principles … you might have them but perhaps you haven’t given them much thought. Now think about whether you actually live these principles, or if you just believe in them but don’t act on them.

11. Speak slowly. Such a simple thing, but it can have a big difference in how others perceive you. A person in authority, with authority, speaks slowly. It shows confidence. A person who feels that he isn’t worth listening to will speak quickly, because he doesn’t want to keep others waiting on something not worthy of listening to. Even if you don’t feel the confidence of someone who speaks slowly, try doing it a few times. It will make you feel more confident. Of course, don’t take it to an extreme, but just don’t sound rushed either.

12. Stand tall. When I remind myself to stand tall and straight, I feel better about myself. I imagine that a rope is pulling the top of my head toward the sky, and the rest of my body straightens accordingly. As an aside, people who stand tall and confident are more attractive. That’s a good thing any day, in my view.

13. Increase competence. How do you feel more competent? By becoming more competent. And how do you do that? By studying and practicing. Just do small bits at a time. If you want to be a more competent writer, for example, don’t try to tackle the entire profession of writing all at once. Just begin to write more. Journal, blog, write short stories, do some freelance writing. The more you write, the better you’ll be. Set aside 30 minutes a day to write (for example), and the practice will increase your competence.

14. Set a small goal and achieve it. People often make the mistake of shooting for the moon, and then when they fail, they get discouraged. Instead, shoot for something much more achievable. Set a goal you knowyou can achieve, and then achieve it. You’ll feel good about that. Now set another small goal and achieve that. The more you achieve small goals, the better you’ll be at it, and the better you’ll feel. Soon you’ll be setting bigger (but still achievable) goals and achieving those too.

15. Change a small habit. Not a big one, like quitting smoking. Just a small one, like writing things down. Or waking up 10 minutes earlier. Or drinking a glass of water when you wake up. Something small that you know you can do. Do it for a month. When you’ve accomplished it, you’ll feel like a million bucks.

16. Focus on solutions. If you are a complainer, or focus on problems, change your focus now. Focusing on solutions instead of problems is one of the best things you can do for your confidence and your career. “I’m fat and lazy!” So how can you solve that? “But I can’t motivate myself!” So how can you solve that? “But I have no energy!” So what’s the solution?

17. Smile. Another trite one. But it works. I feel instantly better when I smile, and it helps me to be kinder to others as well. A little tiny thing that can have a chain reaction. Not a bad investment of your time and energy.

18. Volunteer. Related to the “be kind and generous” item above, but more specific. It’s the holiday season right now … can you find the time to volunteer for a good cause, to spread some holiday cheer, to make the lives of others better? It’ll be some of the best time you’ve ever spent, and an amazing side benefit is that you’ll feel better about yourself, instantly.

19. Be grateful. I’m a firm believer in gratitude, as anyone who’s been reading this blog for very long knows well. But I put it here because while being grateful for what you have in life, for what others have given you, is a very humbling activity … it can also be a very positive and rewarding activity that will improve your self-image.

20. Exercise. Gosh, this one is really tough but it can do wonders. Exercise has been one of my most empowering activities in the last couple years, and it has made me feel so much better about myself.
All you have to do is take a walk a few times a week, and you’ll see benefits.

21. Empower yourself with knowledge. Empowering yourself, in general, is one of the best strategies for building self-confidence. You can do that in many ways, but one of the surest ways to empower yourself is through knowledge. This is along the same vein as building competence and getting prepared … by becoming more knowledgeable, you’ll be more confident … and you become more knowledgeable by doing research and studying. The Internet is a great tool, of course, but so are the people around you, people who have done what you want, books, magazines, and educational institutions.

22. Do something you’ve been procrastinating on. What’s on your to-do list that’s been sitting there? Do it first thing in the morning, and get it out of the way. You’ll feel great about yourself.

23. Get active. Doing something is almost always better than not doing anything. Of course, doing something could lead to mistakes … but mistakes are a part of life. It’s how we learn. Without mistakes, we’d never get better. So don’t worry about those. Just do something.Get off your laziness and get active — physically, or active by taking steps to accomplish something.

24. Work on small things. Trying to take on a huge project or task can be overwhelming and daunting and intimidating for anyone, even the best of us. Instead, learn to break off small chunks and work in bursts. Small little achievements make you feel good, and they add up to big achievements. Learn to work like this all the time, and soon you’ll be a self-confident maniac.

25. Clear your desk. This might seem like a small, simple thing (then again, for some of you it might not be so small). But it has always worked wonders for me. If my desk starts to get messy, and the world around me is in chaos, clearing off my desk is my way of getting a little piece of my life under control. It is the calm in the center of the storm around me.

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Hope you find it useful…

Regards:

Monika Agrawal 🙂

“12 Amazingly Achievable Things to do in Life”

 

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  1. Smile ” –  A smile is a choice, not a miracle. Don’t wait for people to smile. Show them how. A genuine smile makes you and everyone around you feel better. The simple act of smiling sends a message to your brain that you’re happy. And when you’re happy, your body pumps out all kinds of feel-good endorphins. This reaction has been studied since the 1980’s and has been proven a number of times. Smiling actually makes you happier.
  2. * ” Treat everyone with kindness and respect. ” – Yes, treat everyone with kindness and respect, even those who are rude to you – not because they are nice, but because you are. There are no boundaries or classes that define a group of people that deserve to be respected. Treat everyone with the same level of respect you would give to your grandfather and the same level of patience you would have with your baby brother. People will notice your kindness.
  3. * ” Perform one selfless act ” – In life, you get what you put in. When you make a positive impact in someone else’s life, you also make a positive impact in your own life. Do something that’s greater than you, something that helps someone else be happy or suffer less. I promise, it will be an extremely rewarding experience. One you’ll likely remember forever.
  4. * “Avoid needless drama and those who create it.” – Never create unnecessary drama, and don’t surround yourself with those who do. Choose to spend time with people who you are proud to know, people you admire, who love and respect you – people who make your day a little brighter simply by being in it. Don’t walk away from negative people, RUN! Life is too short to spend time with folks who suck the happiness out of you.
  5. * ” Think of the positives.” – Stop being afraid of what could go wrong, and start thinking of what could go right. Better yet, think of everything that already is right. Be thankful for nights that turned into mornings, friends that turned into family, and past dreams and goals that turned into realities. And use this positivity to fuel an even brighter tomorrow.
  6. * ” Inject a little love into the world around you. “– Love what you are doing, until you can do what you love. Love where you are, until you can be where you love. Love the people you are with, until you can be with the people you love most. This is the way we find happiness.
  7. * ” Take decisive and immediate action on something that needs to get done. ” – It doesn’t matter if you have a genius IQ and a PhD in Quantum Physics, you can’t change anything or make any sort of real-world progress without taking action. There’s a huge difference between knowing how to do something and actually doing it. Knowledge and intelligence are both useless without action. It’s as simple as that.
  8. Follow your intuition when making decisions.” – Following your intuition means doing what feels right, even if it doesn’t look or sound right to others. Only time will tell, but our human instincts are rarely ever wrong. So don’t worry about what everyone else thinks, and keep living and speaking your truth. The only people that will get mad at you for doing so are those who are set on living a lie.
  9. * ” Spend time working on something you believe in.” – Never put off or give up on a goal that’s important to you. Not because you still have tomorrow to start or try again, but because you may not have tomorrow at all. Life is shorter than it sometimes seems. Follow your heart today.
  10. * “ Meet someone new.” – Most humans have a habit of stagnating in a small circle of friends; but it doesn’t help us grow. Get out there and meet new people. You’ll be surprised at the lessons they will teach you and the new opportunities they will inject into your life.
  11. * ” Exercise and eat healthy ” – Taking care of your body is crucial to being the happiest person you can be. If you don’t have your physical energy in good shape, then your mental energy (your focus), your emotional energy (your feelings), and your spiritual energy (your purpose) will all be negatively affected. Those who exercise have a higher sense of self-accomplishment and self-worth.
  12. * ” Be a student of life.” – Experience it, learn from it, and absorb all the knowledge you can. Prepare yourself for greatness by keeping your mind conditioned with fresh knowledge and new challenges. Remember, if you stay ready, you don’t have to get ready when great opportunities arise

Try this out and you will find a difference in your life. 🙂

Hope you will like this. 🙂

Regards

Monika Agrawal

10 steps to brush up your public speaking skills

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If the thought of speaking in front of a group makes your blood run cold, here’s good news: You can employ a variety of simple tricks to take the edge off your nerves so that your delivery will be smooth and  effective.
ARTICLE BY:-
Monika Agrawal
Based on tried-and-true techniques.
 

In the business world, speaking effectively is a must. Whether you are going on an interview, asking your boss for a raise (or a bigger budget), selling your product to bidders/purchasers, speaking with clients, giving a presentation, or rallying the troops for a long-haul network upgrade, you are going to need to be at your best with public speaking. Problem is, most schools don’t really give you much in the way of training for public speaking. That’s where I come in.

You may not know this, but I am pursuing a distant training course from University of Queensland on “Think101x-Science of everyday thinking and speaking”. So I am sharing my experience from this course which will definately help you out. And I know how to make speaking easier for those who look at standing up in front of a crowd (or sitting in front a prospective boss) as a nightmare made real. Here are 10 simple ways to get rid of this nightmare.

1: Prepare

You have to know your material. And I’m not just talking about memorizing words and facts. I mean really KNOW your material. You can’t predict what is going to happen that might cause you to get sidetracked. 

When you have a large script to memorize, the best way to do it is in chunks. But not just any chunk. It’s best to make a chunk all related material. For example: You’re giving a presentation on why your company should migrate to open source software. You could have five different chunks to your speech: Intro to open source, Cost savings, Security, Reliability, Ease of use. With each of those chunks, you’ll have certain bits of information to know. But always know the names of those chunks. So when/if you get lost, you at least know which chunk you are on. If you know the information within that chunk well enough, you can get back on track.

This has helped me a number of times on stage. If I have no idea what the topic is about, I’ll never get that presentation effective. Same thing with a speech. If you memorize just a big blurb of stuff and you don’t break it down, you’ll be lost in a sea of information if you lose your bearings. If you get lost within a chunk, that sea becomes a lake and you can find your way back to shore fairly easily. Know your material!

2: Rehearse correctly

Most people don’t realize this, but nerves have a serious effect on how you speak in front of people. Nearly everyone who gets nervous when speaking in front of people will speak faster than they normally would. This can lead to you not being understood and most certainly seeming nervous. (Pitting out that button-down? Shame!). To avoid this pitfall, rehearse your speech more slowly than you would normally. That doesn’t mean speeeeeeaaaak verrrrrrrry slooooooowly. That means just be more at ease and relaxed when you rehearse. That way, when the nerves kick in, you will most likely be speaking at a normal pace.

3: Hydrate yourself

Most would think this a crazy thing to do before speaking. But you know why so many speakers keep water with them when they speak? Nerves dry up your mouth. And when your mouth dries up, you will have a harder time articulating your thoughts. To that end, make sure you drink plenty of water before and during your speech. Now this doesn’t mean down it like you’ve not had water to your lips in days. If you do that, you’ll most certainly need to pause in the middle of your speech to visit the bathroom. Either that or you’ll REALLY embarrass yourself.

4: Relax before you go on

This is another one of those tactics that most people don’t think will work. It does. One of the youth biggest jobs is finding jobs. To find jobs as a professional you have to go for an interview. INTERVIEW is one of the single most nerve wracking things you will ever do. I quickly discovered that if I relax before I go on, my nerves just ease away. But how does one relax? By not obsessing over what you are about to do. If you go over and over your speech before you go on, you will be in a constant state of reminding yourself that you are about to make yourself nervous. Instead, do something to get your mind off what you are about to do. Two activities did the trick for me: Reading a book or playing a video game. It’s pretty easy these days to pack a PSP, DS, Kindle, or paperback with you. Do this and take advantage of the time before you go on. Your heart rate will thank you for it.

5: Rest well

The night before you are going on the biggest interview of your life, don’t go out and paint the town the color of the hangover you’ll have the next morning. Instead, relax, go to the gym, catch a movie, read, or anything that is going to help you get a good night’s sleep. And that doesn’t mean medicate yourself to get those 40 winks. If you do, you’ll wake up feeling worse than if you hadn’t slept.

6: Dress to impress

 There are two reasons for this: Superstition and looks. When an outfit seemed to help me get a gig, I would use it more than not. But how does this really help? You choose a speaking, interviewing, rallying outfit that makes you look good (both to yourself and others) — and when you feel like you look good, your confidence will soar. So don’t just settle on your usual khakis and oxford. Bring in the help of that significant other to help you find just the right look that makes you KNOW you look good.  The confidence you gain by this will greatly improve your speaking.

7: Articulate

Have you ever listened to someone speak who was hard to understand? What do you do after a while? You tune them out. You find them uninteresting and assume they’re not really knowledgeable about their subject. You can be the most brilliant person alive, but if your audience can’t understand you, you will lose them. There are exceptions to this (think Stephen Hawking), but for the most part, speakers who articulate are thought of much more highly than those who don’t.

8: Be heard

This goes hand in hand with number 7. If you can’t be heard, you won’t be heard. If you have a softer voice, you know you’re going to have trouble. And most people tend to speak more softly when they’re speaking in front  of a crowd. (Again, nerves can do many things.) Here’s a way to help you out with this. When you rehearse your speech, do it in front of someone but have them stand in the back of the room. Make sure they let you know if you can’t be heard. You can even make a game of it by giving them a nerf gun (hearken back to the ’90s dot-com days) and have them shoot you when they can’t hear you.Another way is you can record your speech and listen it later to know where you lack for more effective results ask someone to rate your audio and tell you your loose points.

9: Warm up

Your voice is like any other muscle in your body: You use it cold and it won’t work well.  If you roll out of bed, get dressed, drink your coffee, and go give your speech, you’re going to have issues. Instead, make sure your vocal muscles are ready to work. When you give speeches, you are speaking for much longer periods at a time than you normally do. If you don’t prepare yourself you can wind up with a sore throat (or sounding like you just smoked a carton). Two of the best ways to warm your voice up are by humming (single low- to midrange tones are best or simple melodies or scales) and by doing tongue twisters. If you need a good tongue twister to really get yourself ready try “The big black bug bled blue-black blood.” Repeat that for a while and you’ll be ready to knock ’em over!

10: Don’t fill the void

How many times have you heard a speaker or interviewed someone for a job only to turn them off because they filled the space between thoughts with sounds or words? You know what I’m… ummmm… talking… ummmm… about. Right? This sounds horribly unprofessional. Instead of filling your voids with grunts, groans, and signs of weakness, fill them with thought-filled, connected silence. Believe it or not, those pauses aren’t as long as you think. And when your audience (be it a single person or a crowd) sees that you are still connected to them, even between thoughts, you will keep their rapt attention. In other words, don’t drift off with ummmm… errrr… uhhhh… eeeee…sounds or words between your thoughts. Hold your listeners’ attention with silence as you continue to press forward.

What works for you?

These 10 simple tips will take your public speaking leaps and bounds beyond where it is now. Do you have a trick that helps you before you speak or interview for a job? If so, share it with us. 🙂